April 22, 2019

ITO, Caledon and Brampton Study, Peel Region (2757 Determinants of Caries in Adjacent Fluoridated and Non-fluoridated Cities)


A 2001/02 oral health survey of school-aged children conducted in Peel Region, Ontario, Canada found that 50% of children from non-fluoridated, semi-rural, affluent Caledon had dental caries compared to 37% of children from the adjacent, urban, higher immigration, fluoridated city of Brampton.

Objectives: We set out to confirm the difference in dental caries between children in Caledon and Brampton and to determine what factors, including fluoridated water, might explain any difference.

Methods: Two calibrated hygiene-led teams surveyed 1047, 7-year-old children in 25 schools matched by SES from the two cities. Parental questionnaires on the determinants of oral health were returned by 411, home drinking water samples by 384. Drinking water was also collected from the schools. Water samples were analyzed for fluoride concentration using the Orion 96-09 Combination Fluoride Electrode. Data were entered on EpiData and analysed with SPSS ver 12.0. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression. Results: We found that 61% of Caledon children and 64% of Brampton children had deft + DMFT = 0. The deft + DMFT score for children from Caledon was 1.07 and from Brampton 1.14. Factors associated with deft + DMFT>1 were: the absence of dental sealants (OR=0.36, p=0.035); last dental visit for check-up and cleaning (OR=0.17, p<0.0001); fed infant-formula post-natally (OR=0.48,
p=0.026); did not take multivitamins (OR=2.26, p=0.005); and child, mother and father born outside Canada (OR=4.86, p=0.01). Some children in fluoridated Brampton drank non-fluoridated, bottled water; some children from non-fluoridated Caledon had moved there from fluoridated communities.

Conclusion: The effect of fluoridation on caries in these communities was not evident given the matching of the fluoridated Brampton schools to the higher SES of Caledon schools plus the variable exposure to fluoridation within the communities.

Ito (Abstract) Caledon and Brampton Study, Peel Region 2001-2002, 2007

Ito (Webpage Abstract) Caledon and Brampton Study, Peel Region 2001-2002, 2007


Dick Ito DDS, A Cross-Sectional Study To Compare Caries And Fluorosis In 7-Year-Old Schoolchildren From A Fluoridated Area With Those In A Neighbouring Non-Fluoridated Area In Ontario, MSc Thesis, U. Of Toronto, 2007