March 21, 2019

Artificial Water Fluoridation: Off To A Poor Start / Fluoride Injures The Newborn

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COF-COF Journal Fluoridation & Fluoride, January 2015

Sheldon Thomas

Clear Water Legacy


On December 3, 2011, Mr. Neil Johnston, a faculty member in McMaster University’s department of medicine, shared his thoughts about early childhood development in his Hamilton Spectator published article, ‘A Champion for Each Pregnant Woman’.

Mr. Johnston is not new to the study of the human condition.  As a skilled epidemiologist, he was a valued contributor to the Hamilton Spectator’s award-winning ‘Code Red’ and ‘BORN’ projects.

‘Code Red’ established that poverty and poor health are intrinsically linked.  ‘BORN’ examined the determinants of health among mothers and babies across the province.

He wrote, “There is no magic formula that will guarantee to every child a life with no wants and perfect health, but it is in the interest of all of us to provide every child born in Ontario with the best possible chance of lifetime health and the ability to learn.  It is also natural justice.”

Mr. Johnston then listed the sensible precautions that should be taken to lessen the chances of poor birth outcomes that can include compromised early childhood development:  “Effective prenatal care including good maternal nutrition, avoidance of stress and fetal exposure to harmful substances, provision of effective medical and nursing care, along with a well-managed birth, are more likely than not to improve the chances that healthy children will be born.”

As he eloquently noted, it is “natural justice’ that children be offered the best chance for a lifetime of health.

The City of Hamilton, which is home to McMaster University, is on board.  The corporate mission statement calls for Hamilton to become one of the best places in Canada to raise a child.  Eliminating threats to early childhood development would be a very good place to start.

Sheldon Thomas, Artificial Water Fluoridation, Off To A Poor Start – Fluoride Injures The Newborn, COF-COF Journal Fluoridation & Fluoride, Jan-2015

Artificial Water Fluoridation: The disproportionate harm caused to Aboriginal, Black, and Hispanic communities

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COF-COF Journal Fluoridation & Fluoride, September, 19 2012

Sheldon Thomas

Clear Water Legacy


For as long as the practice of artificial water fluoridation has been promoted, impartial researchers have warned, and demonstrated by more than 100 animal studies, that even trace amounts of fluoride can cause harm to humans.

Even in a healthy adult, only about half of ingested fluoride is eliminated from the body. Close to 50% will readily seek out areas of high calcium reserve, bond to the calcium in those areas, and remain.

Fluoride is bio-accumulative and is primarily stored in the bones, with lesser amounts in the teeth. The amount of retained fluoride increases with age and intake, and is released back to the bloodstream during the natural life-stage overturning of bones. Stated differently, the fluoride stored in the bones is not entombed.  It will re-emerge from stasis to further injure the body.

Fluoride’s effect on the skeletal system is to increase bone density, but in doing so it essentially weakens bone structure. 1 The claim that fluoride strengthens bone is a reversal of scientific fact.

Fluoride has been found to concentrate in the pineal gland, there interfering with the production of melatonin, a vital neurotransmitter regulating many bodily functions. 2

Fluoride from drinking water enters the bloodstream soon after swallowing and is transported throughout the entire body, causing interference and injury to many biological mechanisms.

Unfortunately, the agencies and associations that continue to promote artificial water fluoridation  –  including Health Canada, the Association of Local Public Health Agencies (alPHa), nearly all Provincial Medical Officers of Health, the Canadian Dental Association and most Canadian medical associations  –  continue to parrot the decades-old message that artificial water fluoridation is ‘safe and effective’; and, by that, they mean safe and effective for all.

Water fluoridation is promoted as if its effects are equal upon all community members. It is promoted as if we are all physiologically the same, cut from the same biological cloth that would make reaction to chemicals predictable.  Absurd doesn’t begin to describe such a notion.

There is no concentration of fluoride in drinking water that is safe for all. There is no daily dosage of fluoride that is safe for all. Some people suffer an immediate adverse physical reaction to fluoride in their drinking water. Some will slowly develop fluoride-related medical conditions, or succumb to fluoride-enabled diseases that do not appear to affect others.

Some will be stricken by a disease after many years of drinking fluoridated water and never suspect that fluoride was the root cause.


All of this begs the question, Who are the ‘some’ ?

The 2006 National Research Council of the Academy of Sciences report on Fluoride in Drinking Water designated kidney patients, diabetics, seniors and babies as ‘susceptible sub-populations’ that are especially vulnerable to harm from ingested fluorides. 3  

The NRC report paints a clear picture of who the ‘some’ are, and how large their numbers could be.

The ‘safe and effective’ message completely ignores racial, ethnic, and socio-economic differences. There is strong evidence that some ethnic groups suffer disproportionate harm.

Aboriginal, Black, and Hispanic communities are among those groups.

The latest census reports indicate the number of Aboriginal, Black and Hispanic residents in any community.  All three groups comprise ‘fluoride-susceptible sub-populations’ in the eyes of the NRC’s fluoride review expert panel.

Fluoride exposure has been linked to:

  • cancers 4
  • increased bone fracture in both the young and the elderly 5
  • calcification (stiffening) of tendons and joints, arthritic symptoms 6
  • brain injury producing Alzheimer’s-like symptoms 7
  • reduced IQ 8
  • attention deficit disorders 9
  • enzyme poisoning 10
  • hypothyroidism 11
  • elevated lead uptake into the bloodstream 12
  • depleted immune systems 13
  • and an alarming prevalence of dental fluorosis (mottled, discoloured/porous tooth enamel) 14

Health conditions shared by Aboriginal, Black and Hispanic resident populations

The claim of ‘disproportionate harm’ is built upon three common denominators, shared by all three of the aforementioned ethnic groups.

1.  All three groups demonstrate high incidence of diabetes. Diabetics often experience excessive thirst, causing them to drink a lot of water. If the water is fluoridated, their daily fluoride dosage can be elevated well over normal exposures.

2.  All three groups demonstrate high incidence of kidney disease. Impaired kidneys interfere with the body’s ability to eliminate ingested fluoride via the urine, causing the body to retain more fluoride than would be retained by a healthy individual.

3.  All three groups suffer from lactose intolerance. The inability to drink milk forces many to drink greater amounts of water, or resort to reconstituted beverages and juices, most of which are made with fluoridated water.



There is a prevalence of diabetes and kidney disease in Aboriginal communities. Each of these conditions leads to an even greater exposure to fluoride, and greater subsequent injury due to fluoride’s toxic effects. 15

Type 2 diabetes in Native American communities increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century.  Of equal concern is the fact that Type 2, or adult-onset diabetes, is increasingly being discovered in Native American youth. 16

There is a similar prevalence of diabetes and kidney disease in Black communities. 17

Blacks are nearly twice as likely to suffer from diabetes as are whites. 18


Hispanics, too, are nearly twice as likely to suffer from diabetes as are Caucasians. 19


Kidney disease

Healthy kidney function should allow an adult to excrete, via urine, approx. 50% of ingested fluoride. 20   The more fluoride retained throughout the body, the greater its damaging effects.

Although Native Americans make up just 1.5 percent of the U.S. population, they have the highest rate of diabetes in the world and one of the highest rates of end stage renal disease (ESRD). 21   ESRD is the last stage (stage five) of chronic kidney disease. It is a stage when dialysis or kidney transplant becomes necessary to survive.

Because Native Americans are more likely to develop diabetes, they are also more likely to develop chronic kidney disease.  Diabetes is the leading cause of renal failure. 22

Diabetes-related kidney failure affects a much higher percentage of Black Americans than whites. 23

Black Americans constitute about 29 percent of all patients treated for kidney failure in the U.S., but only about 14 percent of the overall U.S. population. 24

Black Americans also develop kidney failure at an earlier age than white Americans. The mean age for Black Americans at the start of treatment for kidney failure is 56 years, compared with 66 in white Americans. 24

Hispanics, too, are at increased risk of kidney disease.  They are grouped in that section of the population that has a high rate of diabetes and/or high blood pressure. 24


Lactose intolerance

Aboriginals are 80 -100 % lactose intolerant. 25

Blacks are 75 % lactose intolerant. 25

Hispanics are 50-80% lactose intolerant. 26


Lactose intolerance will do two things to the afflicted:

  • force them to avoid milk, to instead drink greater quantities of fluoridated water and/or fluoridated juices and pop, and
  • deprive them of natural sources of dietary calcium ( milk and dairy products ) which tends to bind with free fluoride ion, enabling the body eliminate greater amounts of fluoride in urine and stool.


Lactose intolerance partially explains why dental fluorosis is more apparent, and more severe, in Aboriginal, Black and Hispanic communities.


Dental fluorosis

Dental fluorosis is a degraded condition of the tooth enamel caused by ingesting too much fluoride. Any tooth affected by dental fluorosis is, unmistakably, a damaged tooth.

The degree of damage can range from very mild (barely visible mottled white spotting on teeth), to mild, to moderate and on to severe fluorosis (dark staining, corrosion, pitting, and chipping of the tooth surface or biting edge).


Studies confirm that ethnic groups commonly display the worst stages of dental fluorosis:

  • Aboriginals are 80 to 100% lactose intolerant, and very prone to fluorosis. 25
  • Hispanics are at higher risk of suffering from the more severe forms of fluorosis. 26
  • Dental fluorosis is higher among Blacks. Despite the cavity reducing claims of fluoridation promoters, tooth decay is also higher among Blacks. 27


Skeletal fluorosis / what else do the teeth reveal?

Of great importance in the discussion of dental fluorosis is the fact that the teeth are the windows to the bones. The severity of dental fluorosis is a reliable indicator of the fluoride accumulation and toxicity affecting the skeleton.

Fluoride ions are taken up rapidly by replacing hydroxyl ion in bone, altering the size and the structure of the bone crystals. 28

Teotia and Teotia, in 1971, reported that skeletal fluorosis is not confined only to adults but also afflicts the newborn, infants and children. Skeletal fluorosis may develop within six months of exposure to high intakes of fluoride. 29

Although this paper, to this point, has discussed only dental fluorosis, there is no intent to understate fluoride’s massive impact on the much larger calcium reservoir .. the skeletal system.

Studies show fluoride to be a mutagen, capable of enabling cancers. 4

Dr. Elise Bassin, a Harvard University dental researcher, has established that young males who have consumed fluoridated water since birth have a seven-fold increased risk of developing osteosarcoma, a cancerous (malignant) bone tumor that can develop during the period of rapid growth that occurs in adolescence. Osteosarcoma is a particularly lethal and painful form of cancer. 30

It should come as no surprise that fluoride could generate a cancer in the very place where its deposition is the highest, and where its accumulation only increases with time.

Skeletal fluorosis, and the resultant alteration of bone structure, has also been linked to increases in bone fractures among all ages, and particularly pelvic fractures in the elderly. 31

A Mexican study conducted on children looked at fracture rates among youths in relation to dental fluorosis. The study, led by Alarcon-Herrera, and published in 2001, found that bone fracture rates rose sharply with increasing severity of dental fluorosis, and that the risk was heightened even among children with ‘mild’ fluorosis. 32

To quote the National Research Council’s 2006 fluoride review panel, “Fracture risk and bone strength have been studied in animal models. The weight of evidence indicates that, although fluoride might increase bone volume, there is less strength per unit volume.” 35

Clearly, dental fluorosis points to something more than ‘just a cosmetic dental effect’.  In steadfast defiance of many solid, peer-reviewed studies, public health authorities stubbornly maintain that there is no credible evidence that fluoride causes harm to the bone, or to any other bodily tissue.  The reality remains that dental fluorosis is a ‘bio-marker of too much fluoride ingestion’.


Emerging Studies linking ethnic groups to diabetes and kidney disease


Genetic disposition

Research in recent years indicates that many Native Americans are genetically predisposed to diabetes.  “Some of the susceptibility genes for diabetes are likely to be specific to certain populations, while others may be more universal, or common to multiple ethnic groups” say researchers at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 33

About 70 percent of Black Americans with non-diabetic forms of kidney disease have the MYH9 gene, and many of them end up on dialysis. The gene predisposes Black Americans to the kidney disease that was thought to stem from high blood pressure.

“The MYH9 gene association in African-American kidney disease is the most powerful genetic cause of a common disease yet discovered,” said Dr. Barry Freedman, professor of internal medicine and nephrology at Wake Forest University, who led a team of researchers in isolating the gene.

Hispanics or Latinos usually suffer from higher rates of type 2 diabetes ..  inadequate nutrition and reduced physical activity in the setting of an increased genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes have contributed to the inexorable rise in metabolic abnormalities in Hispanics in the United States.” 34



The ethnic groups mentioned here bear similarities that leave them disproportionately exposed to ingested fluoride. Some of the harm that comes from fluoride exposure is obvious, and well-established.  But, ominously, the advance of modern research continues to implicate fluoride in a host of other bodily injuries, including some of society’s most devastating diseases. 35

For the discussed ethnic groups, being unable to escape high levels of fluoride is only part of the problem. The high group prevalence of diabetes and kidney disease will work against many to slowly shut down their natural ability to purge their bodies of fluoride.  In response to unkind genetics, their bodies, to a greater extent than most, will become fluoride repositories. 36

It is this disproportionate accumulation of fluoride that will deliver the disproportionate bodily harm.  The practice of water fluoridation fails to adequately assess the unique sensitivities of ethnic communities to the fluoridating chemicals in common use. 37

Health authorities, in particular, fail to acknowledge ethnic group sensitivities when they advise municipalities to maintain an arbitrarily-set ‘optimum concentration’ of fluoride ion in drinking water.  But, in that failure, health authorities cannot be described as discriminatory .. their ‘safe and effective’ message does not acknowledge anyone’s unique sensitivities.

Aboriginal, Black and Hispanic leaders are reacting to growing evidence that their community members are more negatively affected by water fluoridation.

In the US, ethnic community leaders are asking hard questions of government and health authorities to learn what was, and is, known about the health effects of water fluoridation. They understandably wonder why ethnic groups appear to suffer more than other population groups.  The larger question being asked is, ‘How long have health authorities known that ethnic minorities would fare worse by water fluoridation?’

Atlanta civil rights leaders former US Ambassador Andrew Young and Dr. Gerald Durley have called on top Georgia state legislators to repeal Georgia’s mandatory water fluoridation law. They expressed concerns about issues of fairness and safety, and they seek to investigate evidence of purposeful suppression of information that is not favourable to artificial water fluoridation.

Dr. Durley addressed disproportionate fluoride harm to black citizens’ teeth, and noted that with disproportionate amounts of kidney disease and diabetes in the black community, blacks are more impacted by fluorides.

On July 1, 2011 the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the oldest and largest Latino organization in the US, issued a resolution that stated:

  • current science shows that fluoridation chemicals pose increased risk to sensitive subpopulations, including infants, the elderly, diabetics, kidney patients, and people with poor nutritional status
  • minority communities are more highly impacted by fluorides as they historically experience more diabetes and kidney disease;

The LULAC resolution summarized by demanding to know why government agencies entrusted with protecting the public health are more protective of the policy of fluoridation than they are of public health.   38

LULAC, justifiably, poses the ultimate question.


About the author: 

Sheldon Thomas is the founder of ‘Clear Water Legacy’ (, and a former Manager of Water Distribution for the City of Hamilton, Ontario.



1. WHO Fluoride in Drinking Water 2006, pg 30, 3.1.2. ‘Distribution’

2. ‘The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland’ Jennifer Anne Luke, 1997, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, pages: 1-9; 51-53; 167-177

3. National Research Council info on kidney patients and others as fluoride-susceptible groups – see p. 350 ff at:

4. Taylor A, Taylor NC. (1965). ‘Effect of sodium fluoride on tumor growth’. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 119:252-255.

5.  Riggs BL, et al. (1990). Effect of Fluoride treatment on the Fracture Rates in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine 322:802-809.

6. Bang S, et al. (1985). Distribution of fluoride in calcified cartilage of a fluoride-treated osteoporotic patient. Bone 6: 207-210.

7. ‘Chronic administration of aluminum–fluoride or sodium–fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity’, Julie A. Varner et al., Psychology Department, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA 1997

8. Li Y, et al. (2003). The effects of endemic fluoride poisoning on the intellectual development of children in Baotou. Chinese Journal of Public Health Management 19(4):337-338.

9. Dr. Phyllis J. Mullenix, Toxicology Department, Forsyth Research Institute, Boston, MA – JOURNAL TITLE: Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats, 1995

10. “There is plenty of evidence to indicate that fluorine in the amount of 1 ppm or slightly more interferes with enzyme systems and these enzyme systems are involved in the growth of bones, in the functioning of nerve tissue and so forth. It is clear that fluoridation is a calculated risk.” Dr. Robert S. Harris, Ph.D, Director of Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

11. “In humans, effects on thyroid function were associated with fluoride exposures of 0.05-0.13 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was adequate and 0.01-0.03 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was inadequate.”  National Research Council. (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards,  p 218.

12. ‘Fluoride increases lead concentrations in whole blood and in calcified tissues from lead exposed rats’,  Sawan RM et al., 2010,  Journal Toxicology, pg 21-26

13. Gibson, 1992, Effects of Fluoride on Immune System Function, Complementary Medical Research, Issue 6, pg 11-113;  Sutton P, 1991, ‘Is the Ingestion of Fluoride an Immunosuppressive Practice?’, Medical Hypotheses 35, 1-3,

14. “An increase in fluoride content and decrease in calcium content in fluorosed human teeth were observed when compared to the control.”  Susheela AK, Bhatnagar M. 1999. Structural aberrations in fluorosed human teeth: Biochemical and scanning electron microscopic studies. Current Science 77: 1677-1680.

“Fluorosed enamel has a reduced amount of mineral when compared with control enamel.”  Denbesten PK, et al. 1985. Changes in the fluoride-induced modulation of maturation stage ameloblasts of rats. Journal of Dental Research 64: 1365-70.

15. James R. Gavin III, MD, chair of the American Diabetes Association’s African-American Program / African American Community Health Advisory Committee

16. American Indian Health Central

17. James R. Gavin III, MD, chair of the American Diabetes Association’s African-American Program / African American Community Health Advisory Committee

18. American Diabetes Association, 2005

19. American Diabetes Association. 2010. Latino Programs.

20. Marier and Rose 1971

21. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services        www.ahrq.comn

22.  Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ( AHRQ,  www.ahrq.comn ) of the US Department of Health and Human Services

23.   Perneger TV, Brancati FL, Whelton PK, Kiag M. End-stage renal disease attributable to diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Medicine 1994;121:912-8. (AHRQ Grant HS06978).

24.   National Kidney Foundation statement ,  December 2009

25.   National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2006

26.   Cuatrecasas P, Lockwood DH, Caldwell JR. Lactase deficiency in the adult: a common occurrence. Lancet, 1965;1:14-8. /  Woteki CE, Weser E, Young EA. Lactose malabsorption in Mexican-American adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1977;30:470-5. /  Scrimshaw NS, Murray EB. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1988;48:1083-5.

27. CDC Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999—2002

28. ‘Highlights of Forty Years of Research on Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis in India’,  S P S Teotia , M Teotia and K P Singh, presented at the 4th International Workshop on Fluorosis Prevention and Defluoridation of Water, India

29. Teotia M, Teotia SPS and Kunwar KB. Endemic skeletal fluorosis. Arch. Dis. Child. 1971; 46:686-91.

30. Dr. Elise Bassin, 2001, PhD dissertation, at Harvard University.  The thesis found a strong statistically significant relationship between fluoride exposure during the 6th to 8th years of life (the “mid-childhood growth spurt”) and the later development of osteosarcoma among young males.

31. Dr. Hardy Limeback PhD, DDS Professor and Head, Preventive Dentistry University of Toronto: “Our recently published study on fluoride in bone from fluoridation (Chachra et al, J Dent Res 89(11):1219-1223, 2010) shows a negative trend in changes that have occurred in the bone of Torontonians who have lived only a portion of their lives in fluoridated Toronto.”

32. Alarcon-Herrera MT, et al. (2001). Well Water Fluoride, Dental fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico. Fluoride 34(2): 139-149.

33. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)

34. ‘Diabetes in the Hispanic or Latino population: genes, environment, culture, and more.’

Caballero AE.  Latino Diabetes Initiative, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School

35. 2006, NRC ‘Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards’

36. “Persons with renal failure can have a four fold increase in skeletal fluoride content, are at more risk of spontaneous bone fractures, and akin to skeletal fluorosis even at 1.0 ppm fluoride in drinking water.” SOURCE: Ayoob S, Gupta AK. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review on the Status and Stress Effects. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 36:433–487

37. Russell, 1962; Butler et al., 1985; Williams and Zwemer, 1990; Beltrán-Aguilar et al., 2005; Martinez-Mier and Soto-Rojas, 2010


Artificial Water Fluoridation: No Golden Years for the Elderly

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COF-COF Journal Fluoridation & Fluoride, August 13, 2012

Sheldon Thomas

Clear Water Legacy


The question that we all ask of ourselves is, “What condition will I be in when I reach old age?”

We accept that our physiology will begin to fade with the years, but we envision for ourselves a life graced with a reasonable level of vitality.  We cling to a crossed-finger hope that we will be the ones to side-step many of the conditions and diseases that we see affecting the elderly.

The reasonable among us realize that our own life-choices and actions will greatly determine our health and our quality of life in those years after sixty five.  What we have less control of are the practices and actions of others that affect us.

Artificial water fluoridation is one of those practices.  Ostensibly introduced as a public health measure to reduce the number of dental cavities among whole population groups, the practice got underway without any rigorous toxicology studies or completed clinical trials.

Fluoridation was a population health experiment from the outset.  Considered by its public health authors to be ‘proven’ safe and effective, water fluoridation was spared the requisite legitimate scientific examination, and was then widely promoted.

The missing scientific examination was, fortunately, undertaken by impartial researchers.  Their findings paint a completely different picture of the safety of fluoridation chemicals, and of the claimed health benefits of ingesting them for many years.

There is substantial credible evidence that water fluoridation will undermine the chances of surviving into old age with a sound body and a sharp mind.


The Boomers

The Baby Boomer generation will, for the most part, turn 65 in a few years.  The percentage of elderly in the population will grow markedly from that point.

The number of Ontario seniors aged 65 and over is projected to more than double from 1.9 million in 2011 to become 4.2 million by 2036.  The percentage of elderly in the province by year 2036 is expected to be close to 24%, or one in four. 1

Stated simply, in a little more than 20 years, a quarter of the province’s population will be 65 or older.

With that projected increase in numbers, the ‘age-related’ problems that commonly affect the elderly will soon enough begin to place massive stress on the provincial and municipal health care systems, and on the families of the elderly.

What if many of the age-related ailments that we have grown so accepting of have nothing to do with normal aging?

This is no ordinary generation entering its golden years.  The birth of all those Boomers near-exactly coincides with the introduction of artificial water fluoridation.  This is the first generation reaching old age that has been the life-long target of health authorities bent on administering a daily dose of fluoride medication in communal drinking water supplies.

The 2006 National Research Council of the Academy of Sciences report on Fluoride in Drinking Water designated kidney patients, diabetics, seniors and babies as ‘susceptible sub-populations’ that are especially vulnerable to harm from ingested fluorides.

Increased bone fractures in the elderly

The elderly are at increased risk of bone fracture injury because of the long-term bio-accumulation of fluoride in their bones.

Fluoride seeks out calcium in the body, and there are great calcium reserves in the skeletal system.  Most of the fluoride in the body, about 99%, is contained in bone. 2

Where water is fluoridated, bones are high in fluoride by old age.  Studies based upon autopsies of deceased elderly have revealed as much as 8000 ppm/kg fluoride in bone ash. 3

Fluoride will seriously weaken the bone structure of elderly.  The action of fluoride causes the bone to lose elasticity, the tensile strength required to resist bending fractures. 4

The elderly (and their families) live in fear of falling because falls often result in incapacitating bone fractures, with hip fractures being among the most serious.  Hip fractures are devastating for the elderly.  Up to 36% of the elderly with hip fractures are dead within a year. 5

There is solid evidence that hip fractures increase significantly in fluoridated communities. Increases appear to range from 40-100%, depending on the age of the subjects. 6


Fluoride, cancer and the elderly

As a result of water fluoridation entire communities, not just the elderly, may face more cancers than would otherwise be the case.

It is well-known that fluoride is mutagenic.  It has the ability to corrupt cell function.  Many mutagens are also carcinogens. 13

Research indicates that fluoride enables, promotes or is an outright cause of cancers. 8

In 1990, the US Public Health Service’s National Toxicology Program conducted a well-designed study that showed sodium fluoride to cause cancer at cumulative doses comparable to those ingested by humans over a number of years. 7

The risk of developing cancer increases dramatically with age.  Indications are that 88% of new cases of cancer will occur in people over the age of 50. 9

Approximately 40% of Canadians will develop cancer in their lifetime. 9

These are not acceptable figures.  A 2-out-of-5 chance of developing cancer is not a normal expectation of aging. Something is causative of that outcome, and many believe the staggering increase of synthetic chemicals created and introduced since WWII is to blame. 10

Dr. Dean Burk, Ph.D., 34 years at the National Cancer Institute and former Chief chemist and head of National Cancer Institute Research, believed that the growth of cancers was linked to abrupt environmental change.  He was convinced artificial water fluoridation was one of those abrupt changes.

He stated, “In point of fact, fluoride causes more human cancer death, and causes it faster, than any other chemical.” 11

Dr. Burke was not alone in that belief. 12


Bone cancer ( osteosarcoma )                                                                             

Fluoride’s particular affinity for the calcium reserves in bone explains its link to bone cancers.

Fluoride is a ‘mitogen’ – meaning it can stimulate the proliferation of bone-forming cells called ‘osteoblasts’.  Osteosarcoma is a cancer caused by an abnormal proliferation of osteoblasts. 13

As mentioned earlier, the elderly who have consumed fluoridated water throughout their lives can have remarkably high concentrations of fluoride in their bones.

Bone cancer appears to have two peaks, first in adolescence (15 to 19) and second with the onset of old age (50+). 14

Osteosarcoma was more common in men aged 60+ than women of the same age group in most countries. 14

For some reason, Canadian men aged 75+ have a strikingly higher incidence of bone cancer, better than double the norm in other countries. 14

In 1992, Dr. Paul Cohn conducted a thorough peer-reviewed large human population study for the State Board of Health in New Jersey. He found that males aged 10 -19 were nearly 7 times more likely to get bone cancer if they lived in a fluoridated community than if they lived in a non-fluoridated community. 15

The general population in Cohn’s fluoridated study area was 5 times as likely to develop bone cancer.  General population would include the elderly. 15

In 2006, Dr. Elise Bassin, a dental researcher affiliated with Harvard University, established that adolescent males living in fluoridated communities had a 7.2 times greater chance of developing bone cancer than males of the same age group in non-fluoridating communities.  Her findings closely mirrored the Cohn study results from 14 years earlier.

Dr. Bassin’s study joins other studies that show cancers to be active in the areas of the body where fluoride accumulates. 16


Thyroid disease: poor prognosis for the aged

In 1955, a report in the New England Journal of Medicine indicated a 400 percent increase in thyroid cancer in San Francisco since that city began fluoridating its drinking water just 5 years earlier. 17

Fluoride is well-known to interfere with the functioning of the thyroid gland.  The thyroid gland produces vital hormones which control metabolism.  An impaired thyroid will lead to diminished mental and physical ability. 18

Fluoride displaces iodine in the thyroid, greatly depressing thyroid function and rendering a person hypothyroid from iodine deficiency. 19

With age comes a progressively greater accumulation of fluoride in the body.  Inevitably, this points to the elderly as being particularly affected by hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism has become epidemic on the North American continent.  One out of three is likely to suffer from it by mid-life.  Those affected can become overly-tired, cold-sensitive, overweight, and depressed.  They often endure arthritis-like symptoms, hair loss, infertility, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and periods of prolonged illness. 20

In the elderly, thyroid disease is very common.  At autopsy, finding a “normal thyroid gland” is rare, testifying to the incredible high prevalence of thyroid disorders among the elderly. 21


Fluoride and aging

If the human body were likened to an engine, the engine management module would be the body’s enzymes.  All of the thousands of complex chemical reactions necessary to maintain normal bodily functions depend on the miraculous coordination and performance of enzymes.  Fluoride throws that engine completely out of tune.  Fluoride is a powerful enzyme poison. 22

Austrian researchers proved in the 1970s that as little as 1 ppm fluoride concentration can disrupt DNA repair enzymes by 50%.

When DNA can’t repair damaged cells, we get old … fast. 23

Fluoride ages the body, mainly by causing distortion of the chemical structure of the enzyme.    When enzymes become chemically altered, they can’t do their jobs.  This results in the markers of old age: collagen breakdown, eczema, tissue damage, skin wrinkling, and genetic damage.  Enzyme corruption also causes the immune system to perform ‘like the immune system of an old person’. 24

By its corruption of enzymes, fluoride robs the body of its natural ability to fend off external pathogens.  Fighting infection is a battle often lost by the elderly.

According to the Institute of Medicine, “There appears to be a direct relationship between increasing age and susceptibility to infections.  Factors that may contribute to the predisposition of the elderly to infections include impaired immune function.” 25


Water fluoridation and Alzheimer’s

The Boomer generation has been tagged with a second nickname, ‘Generation Alzheimer’s’. 26

Alzheimer’s has become the defining disease of this post-WWII generation.

“Alzheimer’s is a tragic epidemic that has no survivors.  Not a single one,” says Harry Johns, president and CEO of the Alzheimer’s Association.  “It is as much a thief as a killer.  Alzheimer’s will darken the long-awaited retirement years of the one out of eight baby boomers who will develop it”. 27

That ‘one out of eight’ projection, points to an estimated 10 million baby boomers expected to develop Alzheimer’s Disease in the United States alone. 27

Far from simply an old person’s disease, Alzheimer’s appears now to be affecting people in their 40’s and 50’s.  Known as ‘early-onset Alzheimer’s’, it is estimated that more than 200,000 Americans have the early beginnings of this disease.  Victims of early onset Alzheimer’s can suffer dementia that ranges from mild to severe. 28

Why this generation?  Why did Alzheimer’s spike so suddenly across a single generation?

What was so different in that immediate time period after the Second World War?

Look to water fluoridation.  Water fluoridation was just getting underway as the war ended.

As a never-seen-before program of fluoride mass medication using communal drinking water supplies, it was perhaps the one thing that could immediately, physically and permanently affect so many newborns across this continent.

Fluoridation became the official policy of the US Public Health Services in 1951, and by 1960, 50 million Americans had fluoridated water in their homes. 29

Aluminum accumulation in brain tissue has long been linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.  Recent studies have shown that fluoride enables aluminum to enter the brain, and accumulate in brain tissue. 30

Fluoride plus aluminum work in synergy to create in the brain what appear to be Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. 30

Without the presence of fluoride, aluminum would not pass the ‘blood-brain barrier’, the brain’s natural defense against harmful chemicals. 30

Aluminum is often present in finished drinking water.  Aluminum salts are the preferred water industry treatment chemicals used to help clarify raw intake water.  Invariably, trace amounts of aluminum remain in the finished drinking water.

Unfortunately, it is chemically impossible for fluorine not to combine with aluminum when the two encounter each other. 31

The formation of fluoride compounds is basic chemistry.  The fluorine ion is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. 32

An aluminum atom has three extra electrons in its valence shell.  The fluorine ion will bind to any atom with a spare electron.  Not hard to understand, and foolish to deny.

That union will form an ‘alumino-fluoride complex’ as soon as fluorine ion is added to the finished water at the plant.  Alumino-fluoride complex is neurotoxic. 33

It is, therefore, a near-certainty that fetuses, babies, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly will ingest alumino-fluoride neurotoxins for as many years as they consume fluoridated water.

The toxic synergy between fluoride and aluminum is established.  30   Alzheimer’s-like symptoms appear to be the fallout of that synergy.



A life well-spent and a rest well-earned is what we optimistically hope for ourselves and our loved ones.  It is a hope that, if life is fair, should come to pass.  Instead, we are witness to the extraordinary plight of the very first fluoride generation, burdened with unusual illness and frailty as they enter their old age.

The Golden Years await us all, but there is no reward if we cannot maintain some vitality to enable enjoyment of those years.

The numbers of reasonably robust, clear-minded elders is shrinking.  Too many suffer physical and mental impairments that leave them unable to live and thrive independently

What we see, instead, is a rich and prospering elder care industry, and a health care system that is taxed to the limit to tend to the numbers of sick, diseased and disabled elderly.

Did water fluoridation cause all of the above?  The best answer would be no.  However, too many studies indicate that water fluoridation may have played a big role in the surprising frailty of those now entering their ‘golden years’.

Water fluoridation’s singular role is to introduce the fluorine ion into the body.  Fluorine is an enzyme poison, a hormone manipulator, a bone corrupter, a mutagen, a mitogen, and a very likely promoter of cancer.

The human body was not meant to ingest the fluorine ion.  It has no use for, or defense against, fluorine.  The Baby Boomer generation is adequate testament to that truth.


About the author: 

 Sheldon Thomas is the founder of ‘Clear Water Legacy’ (, and a former Manager of Water Distribution for the City of Hamilton, Ontario.



1. Ontario Ministry of Finance, Ontario Population Projections Update for years 2011 – 2036, based on the 2006 census, announced Spring, 2011

2. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006)

3. Kaj Roholm’s 1937 study on phases of skeletal fluorosis

4. SØGAARD CH et al. (1994) Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy-assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporetic patients Bone 15 (4), 393-399 Jul/Aug

A 1994 report by P. Fratzl et al in the Journal of Bone & Mineral Research described abnormal bone mineralization after fluoride treatments.

5.   Link provided by Dr. Hardy Limeback, retired professor of dentistry and former head of Preventive Dentistry at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto

6. Fluoride (Vol. 26 No. 4, pages 274-277, 1993).  All studies of fracture rates relative to long-term fluoridation exposure indicate a significant increase in fracture risk from fluoridation.  For women in their seventh decade who have been exposed to life-long fluoridation, the risk of hip fracture is approximately doubled.  The risk increases with fluoride concentration at all levels over 0.11 ppm.  Increased bone and connective tissue injuries of US youngsters should alert us to the probability that our high fluoride environment is adversely affecting our youngsters as well as our elderly. / John R Lee, MD, is the former director of the Marin Medical Society in California and the author of Optimal Health Guidelines, Optimal Fluoridation and Gilbert’s Disease and Fluoride Toxicity.

Three notable studies, all published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, showed a relationship between water fluoridation and increased hip fractures.  These were major studies on large populations :

JACOBSEN SJ GOLDBERG J MILES TP BRODY JA STIERS W & RIMM AA (1990) Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women 65 years and older.  J American Medical Assoc 264, (4) 500-502, Jul 25th

COOPER C WICKHAM CAC BARKER DIR & JACOBSEN SJ (1991) Water fluoridation and hip fracture J American Medical Assoc 266 (4), 513 July 24/31

JACQUMIN-GADDA H COMMENGES D DARTIGUES J-F (1995) Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly J American Medical Assoc 273 (10), 775-776

1992, C. Danielson et al reported that the risk of hip fracture was approximately 30% higher for women and 40% higher for men in fluoridated communities.  Among women at age 75, the risk was about twice as high in fluoridated communities.  “‘Hip Fractures and Fluoridation in Utah’s Elderly Population,’ a study by C. Danielson et al [Journal of the American Medical Association, August 12, 1992, 268:746-8], compared the incidence of femoral neck fractures in a community with long-standing water fluoridation (to 1 ppm) with the incidence in two communities without water fluoridation (less than 0.3 ppm).  The findings of this report support other epidemiologic studies suggesting that fluoride increases the risk of hip fracture.”
– Journal of the American Medical Association

An Australian review of scientific literature in 1997 revealed there is strong evidence that fluoride disrupts bone structure, increasing prevalence of hip fractures, skeletal fluorosis, and osteosarcomas / Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 1997

A French study found an 86% increase in hip fracture rates amongst elderly French people living in regions with fluoride in the water (i.e. nearly double the normal rate).

7. NTP TECHNICAL REPORT (1990) Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Fluoride in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice, NTP TR 393 (Draft), National Toxicology Program, US Dept of Health & Human Services: Washington, DC, 106pp + 370pp of appendices

Mohamed AH, Chandler ME. (1982).  ‘Cytological effects of sodium fluoride on mice’.  Fluoride 15: 110-18. “Cytological studies on bone marrow cell chromosomes and spermatocytes showed that 1-200 ppm F (as sodium fluoride) was able to induce chromosomal changes in a dose-dependent manner.  The frequency of the induced chromosomal damage was significantly higher in each treatment than in the controls.  The observed abnormalities included translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and bridges plus fragments, or fragments by themselves.  There was a significant correlation between the amount of fluoride in the body ash and the frequency of the chromosomal abnormalities.”

Voroshilin SI, et al. (1973).  ‘Cytogenetic effect of inorganic fluorine compounds on human and animal cells in vivo and in vitro’.  Genetika 9: 115-120.
“On the grounds of the results obtained during our experiments F compounds are able to produce certain changes in chromosomes from somatic cells of animals treated in vivo by them…  Most of the aberrations observed in the case of bone marrow cells were chromatid-type aberrations…  [W]e entertain the opinion that the main damage to chromosomes during our experiments with F compounds also took part during the S-phase…  [T]hese data enable us to consider as sufficiently established the conclusion that inorganic fluorine compounds may present a mutagenic danger to human beings.”

Taylor A, Taylor NC. (1965).  ‘Effect of sodium fluoride on tumor growth’.  Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 119:252-255.  “In 54 tests involving 991 mice bearing transplanted tumors and 58 tests including 1817 tumor-bearing eggs, data were obtained which indicated a statistically significant acceleration of tumor tissue growth in association with comparatively low levels of NaF.”

8. 1990  Dr. William Marcus, an EPA senior science advisor and toxicologist, maintained that, “fluoride is a carcinogen by any standard that we use.  I believe EPA should act immediately to protect the public, not just on the cancer data, but on the evidence of bone fractures, arthritis, mutagenicity, and other effects.”

9. Canadian Cancer Statistics 2011 / ‘Cancer in Quebec and in Canada: Fast Facts’, May 18, 2011

10. Generations at Risk: Reproductive Health and the Environment by Ted Schettler, M.D., Gina Solomon, M.D., Maria Valenti, and Annette Huddle, 1999, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Living Downstream: A Scientist’s Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment by Sandra Steingraber, 1998, Vintage Books: New York.

11. Dean Burk — Congressional Record 21 July 1976

12. The link between fluoridation and cancer has been established by several investigators.  The best way of summarizing the evidence is to refer to the evidence given in open court against the Director of Public Health State of Illinois, et al. over a period of ten weeks during this past spring.  Drs. Dean Burk and John Yiamouyiannis presented the findings of one of the largest and most sophisticated epidemiological studies in modern science, covering the fluoridation-cancer experience of 18 million Americans over 30 years.  There were controls for known and unknown variables, including geographic, demographic, environmental, and dietary factors; consideration of periods before and after the introduction of fluoridation in the experimental cities; double-blind design to control for bias; an objective and manageable index of time trends studied; together with elaborate adjustments for age, race, and sex by direct and indirect methods.  A significant increase in cancer deaths in humans was associated with the introduction’ of fluoridation.  The data show that 10,000 to 30,000 Americans die of cancer each year due to the effects of fluoridation.
Dr. John Yiamouyiannis was, until his death in the fall of 2000, the world’s leading authority on the biological effects of fluoride.  His formal education included a B.S. in biochemistry from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D in biochemistry from the University of Rhode Island.

After a year of postdoctoral research at Western Reserve University Medical School, Yiamouyiannis went on to become biochemical editor at Chemical Abstracts Service, the world’s largest chemical information center.  It was at Chemical Abstracts Service, where Yiamouyiannis became interested in the damaging effects of fluoride.

13. Submission to CA OEHHA on prioritizing 38 potential carcinogens for review “Fluoride and Osteosarcoma” by Dr. Paul Connett.  May 4, 2009.

14. Int. J. Cancer: 125, 229–234 (2009)  ‘International osteosarcoma incidence patterns in children and adolescents, middle ages and elderly persons’ / Lisa Mirabello1, Rebecca J. Troisi2,3 and Sharon A. Savage1*

15. COHN PD (1992) An epidemiologic report on drinking water and fluoridation Trenton, NJ: State of New Jersey, Dept. of Health

16. Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma connection in the context of Elise Bassin’s findings: Part I, by Dr. Paul Connett, Chris Neurath and Michael Connett / Submitted to the NRC review panel on the Toxicology of Fluoride in Water, March 2, 2005

17. Gladys Caldwell and Philip Zanfagna, MD, in their 1974 book ‘Fluoridation and Truth Decay’

18. ‘The Effects of Fluoride on The Thyroid Gland’ by Dr Barry Durrant-Peatfield MBBS LRCP MRCS Medical Advisor to Thyroid UK.  He has been a medical practitioner for over forty years specializing in metabolic disorders during which time he became a leading authority in the UK for thyroid and adrenal management.

19. Dr. Barry Durrant-Peatfield, ‘ The Effects of Fluoride on the Thyroid Gland’

Goldemberg, L. La Semana Med. 28:628 (1921), cited in Wilson RH, DeEds F. “The Synergistic Action of Thyroid on Fluoride Toxicity” Endocrinology 26:851 (1940).

20. ‘Hypothyroidism Type 2: The Epidemic’ /  Mark Starr M.D.  Board certified by the American Board of Pain Medicine and the Arizona State Board of Homeopathic Medical Examiners

21. Fleischmann A, Hardmeier T (1999) A normal thyroid gland upon autopsy: a relatively uncommon finding. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 129:873-882 37.

22. Dr. James B. Sumner, Director of Enzyme Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Cornell University; Nobel Prize winner for his work in field of enzyme chemistry / “Everybody knows fluorine and fluorides are very poisonous substances and we use them in enzyme chemistry to poison enzymes, those vital agents in the body.  That is the reason things are poisoned, because the enzymes are poisoned and that is why animals and plants die.”
23. Wolfgang Klein, et al., “DNA Repair and Environmental Substances,” Zeitschrift fur Angewanilte Rader und Klimaheilkunde, Volume 24, No. 3, pp. 218-223 (1977).

Wolfgang Klein, et al., “Biochemical Research on the Action of Sodium Fluoride on Mammalian Cells.  The

Effect on Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acid and Proteins on Mouse Spleen Cells in in Vivo Studies,” Report of the Austrian Society of Atomic Energy, Seibersdorf Research Center, No. 2355, pp. 1-10 (1974).

Wolgang Klein, et al., “DNA Repair and Environmental Substances,” Report of the Austrian Society of Atomic Energy, Seibersdorf Research Center, No. 2613

24. John Yiamouyiannis, Ph.D., Biochemistry and By John R. Lee, M.D. ‘Fluoride – The Aging Factor’ /

“The prime physiological effect of fluoride is enzyme inhibition; it does this by forming hydrogen bonds with amides which comprise the operative chemical structure of enzymes; it therefore disrupts collagen synthesis which results in dental fluorosis as well as damaged cartilage, ligaments, bone, skin, arteries and other elements of connective tissue in a manner identical with aging.  Furthermore, this fluoride-induced enzyme inhibition interferes with our immune system so that it “not only causes the immune system to act like the immune system of an ‘old’ person, it causes autoimmune damage to the entire body and accelerates the aging process of that body.” And, finally, fluoride interferes with DNA repair, damages chromosomes, and induces higher cancer death rates yet another morbid characteristic of aging.”

25. Institute of Medicine, ‘The Second Fifty Years: Promoting Health and Preventing Disability’, (1992), pg 65, Risk Factor for Infection in the Elderly.

26. ‘Generation Alzheimer’s’ / Alzheimer’s Association National Office, 225 N. Michigan Ave., Fl. 17, Chicago, IL 60601

27. Alzheimer’s Association Public Policy Division, 1212 New York Avenue, NW., Suite 800
Washington, DC 20005-6105

28. Alzheimer’s Association,, ‘Younger/Early Onset Alzheimer’s and Dimentia’

29. Lennon MA. ‘One in a million: the first community trial of water fluoridation’.  Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84(9):759–60.

30. Dr. Julie A. Varner, EPA neurotoxicologist, Binghamton University, Binghamton, N.Y., Karl F. Jensen, William Horvath, Robert L. Isaacson, Brain Research, Vol.784:l998, Elsevier Science.  / ‘Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity’.

An animal study links low levels of fluoride in water to brain damage [Brain Res. 784, 284 (1998)].  “Fluoride in water may complex with the aluminum in food and enable it to cross the blood-brain barrier.  Both treated groups also suffered neural injury and showed increased deposits of ß-amyloid protein in the brain, similar to those seen in humans with Alzheimer’s disease.  While the small amount of AIF3…required for neurotoxic effects is surprising, perhaps even more surprising are the neurotoxic effects of NaF at 2.1 ppm.”

Following the Varner, et al aluminium fluoride studies in which 80% of the experimental rats died before the end of the experiment the United States Environmental Protection Agency was sufficiently alarmed to push the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to do further research.

Varner and associates appear to have found TOXIC SYNERGISTIC ACTION between FLUORIDE and ALUMINIUM in drinking water.  This has now been made a part of PUBLIC RECORD in the US FEDERAL REGISTER as of December 4, 2000.  The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences concurs with the EPA and has formally called for NTP to commission studies.
For the first time, synergistic action is officially acknowledged, along with the fact that FLUORIDE in the water COMBINES WITH OTHER MINERALS.

31. ALUMINUM TRIFLUORIDE / Fluorine can also bond with aluminum.  Aluminum has three extra electrons and will easily let the Fluorine ion use them.  Since Aluminum has three, that means three Fluorines can bond.  The make the formula AlF3, also known as Aluminum trifluoride.

32. Lenntech BV Water Treatment Solutions,  Rotterdam The Netherlands.
Fluorine reacts so readily with almost any substance it contacts that chemists were not successful in isolating pure fluorine until 1886, although its existence in compounds had been known for many years.
33. Varner, Horvath et al. 1994; Varner, Jensen et al. 1998